If we build an SharePoint app and need to show items based on audience targeting, can we use CSOM for that? Can't find any references to it in the CSOM SDK.
As far as I can recall, filtering of list items based on Target Audience works only with Content Query WebPart. If you are trying to execute CAML query it will not consider audience targeting. You will need to explicitly process target audience column yourself.
Instead of using audience targeting you may want to apply appropriate permissions on list items so that security trimming gets into picture and will filter out unwanted items from getting displayed.