Yes, this is definitely possible - at least if your SharePoint is on-premise. I've never set it up for SharePoint online. It's a bit of a headache to get everything set up right, and you'll want to make sure you have SSL configured on both SharePoint and on IIS on the RemoteWeb server.
I did not have to set up ServiceBus on the RemoteWeb server. I had the RemoteWeb server on the same domain as the SharePoint server, but I am not sure if that is needed.
The high-level steps I went through:
- Configure Windows Server with IIS and SSL to be the RemoteWeb server
- Create a certificate on the RemoteWeb server to use for the trust relationship
- Establish high-trust relationship between RemoteWeb server and SharePoint server (this is done with some SharePoint powershell commands)
- Deploy app to IIS on RemoteWeb server
Some gotchas that I ran into:
- When setting up IIS on the server, ensure that Windows Authentication feature is enabled
- Make sure the application pool account that your app is running under on the RemoteWeb server can read the private key of the certificate you created under step 2 - by default it probably won't be able to.
Each of the steps above has many substeps, but your question was can it be done, and the answer is yes.
This page helped me a lot when I was setting up my server to host my app: http://www.luisevalencia.com/2014/07/23/prepare-environments-sharepoint-provider-hosted-apps/