I'am currently running a windows server 2012 version and I don't have the "C:\Program files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\Web Server Extensions\14\LOGS". Instead in the "14" directory I only have "CONFIG" and "TEMPLATE" directories. I would like to see the .log file to see the error that matching with the correlation ID I got.
Use the below powershell command to get the configuration details of the diagostics. You'll see a property "LogLocation" and check if you get the logs at that location