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From a SharePoint hosted app, I want to add a list and a content type to host web - not app web.

Please tell me how can I do so, I looked at several resources - none say anything about content type?

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please refer a great article by Chris O'Brien for provisioning Content type in host web. He has used CSOM to provision content type.

http://www.sharepointnutsandbolts.com/2013/06/sp2013-host-web-apps-provisioning.html

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Chris O'Brien has this wonderful series on apps. One of the articles mentions about adding fields and content types in Host Web. The app needs to be given Full Permissions on the Host Web and all provisioning needs to be done using code.

/// <reference path="jquery-1.7.1.js" />
/// <reference name="MicrosoftAjax.js" />
/// <reference path="~/_layouts/15/init.js" />
/// <reference path="~/_layouts/15/SP.Core.js" />
/// <reference path="~/_layouts/15/SP.Runtime.js" />
/// <reference path="~/_layouts/15/SP.UI.Dialog.js" />
/// <reference path="~/_layouts/15/SP.js" />

'use strict';

window.COB = window.COB || {};

window.COB.HostWebApp = function() {
    var hostWebUrl,
        appWebUrl,
        hostWebContext,
        hostWebContentTypes,
        createdField,
        createdFieldInternalName,
        createdContentTypeName,
        contentTypeName = 'COB Content Type',
        contentTypeDescription = 'Content Type provisioned from app',
        contentTypeGroupName = 'COB app content types',
        fieldName = 'COBProvisionedField',
        fieldDisplayName = 'Field provisioned by app',
        fieldGroupName = 'COB columns',

    createField = function (fieldType, fieldName, fieldDisplayName, fieldGroup, fieldHidden) {
        var fields = hostWebContext.get_web().get_fields();

        var fieldXml = "<Field Type='" + fieldType + "' DisplayName='" + fieldDisplayName + "' Name='" + fieldName + 
            "' Group='" + fieldGroup + "' Hidden='" + fieldHidden + "'></Field>";

        createdField = fields.addFieldAsXml(fieldXml, false, SP.AddFieldOptions.AddToNoContentType);

        hostWebContext.load(fields);
        hostWebContext.load(createdField);
        hostWebContext.executeQueryAsync(onProvisionFieldSuccess, onProvisionFieldFail);
    },
    onProvisionFieldSuccess = function () {
        $('#message').append('<br /><div>Field provisioned in host web successfully.</div>');
    },
    onProvisionFieldFail = function (sender, args) {
        alert('Failed to provision field into host web. Error:' + sender.statusCode);
    },

    createContentTypeInHost = function (ctypeName, ctypeDescription, ctypeGroup) {
        var hostWeb = hostWebContext.get_web();
        hostWebContentTypes = hostWeb.get_contentTypes();
        var cTypeInfo = new SP.ContentTypeCreationInformation();
        cTypeInfo.set_name(ctypeName);
        cTypeInfo.set_description(ctypeDescription);
        cTypeInfo.set_group(ctypeGroup);
        hostWebContentTypes.add(cTypeInfo);
        hostWebContext.load(hostWebContentTypes);
        hostWebContext.executeQueryAsync(onProvisionContentTypeSuccess, onProvisionContentTypeFail);
    },
    onProvisionContentTypeSuccess = function () {
        $('#message').append('<br /><div>Content type provisioned in host web successfully..</div>');

        // now the content type has been created, add the field..
        addFieldToContentTypeInHost(contentTypeName, fieldDisplayName);
    },
    onProvisionContentTypeFail = function (sender, args) {
        alert('Failed to provision content type into host web. Error:' + sender.statusCode);
    },

    addFieldToContentTypeInHost = function (ctypeName, fieldInternalName) {
        var hostWeb = hostWebContext.get_web();

        createdFieldInternalName = fieldInternalName;
        createdContentTypeName = ctypeName;

        // re-fetch created items..
        createdField = hostWeb.get_fields().getByInternalNameOrTitle(fieldInternalName);
        hostWebContext.load(createdField);

        hostWebContentTypes = hostWeb.get_contentTypes();
        hostWebContext.load(hostWebContentTypes);

        hostWebContext.executeQueryAsync(onItemsRefetchedSuccess, onItemsRefetchedFail);
        },
        onItemsRefetchedSuccess = function () {
            performAdd(createdContentTypeName, createdFieldInternalName);
        },
        onItemsRefetchedFail = function (sender, args) {
            alert('Failed to re-fetch field and content type. Error:' + sender.statusCode);
        },

        performAdd = function (ctypeName, fieldInternalName) {
            // iterate content types, find passed one, THEN add field..
            var cTypeFound = false;
            var createdContentType;

            var contentTypeEnumerator = hostWebContentTypes.getEnumerator();
            while (contentTypeEnumerator.moveNext()) {
                var contentType = contentTypeEnumerator.get_current();
                if (contentType.get_name() === ctypeName) {
                    cTypeFound = true;
                    createdContentType = contentType;
                    break;
                }
            }

            if (cTypeFound) {
                // - NOT the below line - SP.FieldCollection doesn't appear to have an add() method when fetched from content type..
                //contentType.get_fields.add(fieldInternalName)
                // - instead, this..
                var fieldRef = new SP.FieldLinkCreationInformation();
                fieldRef.set_field(createdField);

                createdContentType.get_fieldLinks().add(fieldRef);
                // specify push down..
                createdContentType.update(true);

                hostWebContext.load(createdContentType);
                hostWebContext.executeQueryAsync(onAddFieldToContentTypeSuccess, onAddFieldToContentTypeFail);
            }
            else {
                $('#message').append('<br /><div>Failed to add field to content type - check the content type exists!</div>');
            }
        },
        onAddFieldToContentTypeSuccess = function () {
            $('#message').append('<br /><div>Field added to content type in host web successfully..</div>');
        },
        onAddFieldToContentTypeFail = function (sender, args) {
            alert('Failed to add field to content type. Error:' + sender.statusCode);
        },

    init = function () {
        var hostWebUrlFromQS = $.getUrlVar("SPHostUrl");
        hostWebUrl = (hostWebUrlFromQS !== undefined) ? decodeURIComponent(hostWebUrlFromQS) : undefined;

        var appWebUrlFromQS = $.getUrlVar("SPAppWebUrl");
        appWebUrl = (appWebUrlFromQS !== undefined) ? decodeURIComponent(appWebUrlFromQS) : undefined;
    }

    return {
        execute: function () {
            init();

            hostWebContext = new SP.ClientContext(window.COB.appHelper.getRelativeUrlFromAbsolute(hostWebUrl));
            createField('Text', fieldName, fieldDisplayName, fieldGroupName, 'false');
            createContentTypeInHost(contentTypeName, contentTypeDescription, contentTypeGroupName);
        }
    }
}();

window.COB.AppHelper = {
    getRelativeUrlFromAbsolute: function (absoluteUrl) {
        absoluteUrl = absoluteUrl.replace('https://', '');
        var parts = absoluteUrl.split('/');
        var relativeUrl = '/';
        for (var i = 1; i < parts.length; i++) {
            relativeUrl += parts[i] + '/';
        }
        return relativeUrl;
    },
};

$(document).ready(function () {
    window.COB.HostWebApp.execute();
});

See this for more information: http://www.sharepointnutsandbolts.com/2013/06/sp2013-host-web-apps-provisioning.html

Also, see this article where I show how to create lists in Host Web: http://www.sharepointnadeem.com/2013/12/sharepoint-2013-apps-access-data-in.html

function createlist() {
        // Create an announcement SharePoint list with the name that the user specifies.
        var hostUrl = decodeURIComponent(getQueryStringParameter("SPHostUrl"));
        var currentcontext = new SP.ClientContext.get_current();
        var hostcontext = new SP.AppContextSite(currentcontext, hostUrl);
        var hostweb = hostcontext.get_web();
        var listCreationInfo = new SP.ListCreationInformation();
        var listTitle = document.getElementById("createList").value;
        listCreationInfo.set_title(listTitle);
        listCreationInfo.set_templateType(SP.ListTemplateType.announcements);
        var lists = hostweb.get_lists();
        var newList = lists.add(listCreationInfo);
        context.load(newList);
        context.executeQueryAsync(onListCreationSuccess, onListCreationFail);
    }

    function onListCreationSuccess() {
        alert('List created successfully!');
    }

    function onListCreationFail(sender, args) {
        alert('Failed to create the list. ' + args.get_message());
    }

For creating a list in Host Web Manage permissions are sufficient.

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