You can examine the built-in filtering functionality of list view web parts - if you use the header dropdowns, they filter the list view by changing the url and adding parameters.
Most of the fields, however, are not very filter-friently. For example you cannot have multi-select on one column, and you cannot use regular expression to select all items starting with a given string. The built-in filtering works best when applied to choice/lookup fields (again, only single option is available).
Here is what Sharepoint adds as parameters:
You can remove the View parameter and value - it still works without them; the FilterField1 defines the static name of the first field you want to filter by; FilterValue1 defines the text string according to which your list will be filtered (using filterfield1).
You can filter by several fields. The fields must be visible in the view you are filtering by.