I'm working on creating a SP2013 search service application based on Todd Klindt's work (http://www.toddklindt.com/blog/Lists/Posts/Post.aspx?ID=378). It worked down to the line New-SPEnterpriseSearchAdminComponent –SearchTopology $clone -SearchServiceInstance $searchServiceInstance. I've modified the $clone and $searchserviceinstance from what he has to:

$ssa = Get-SPEnterpriseSearchServiceApplication
$active = Get-SPEnterpriseSearchTopology -SearchApplication $ssa -Active
$clone = New-SPEnterpriseSearchTopology -SearchApplication $ssa -Clone -SearchTopology $active
write-host "we have a clone"
$searchServiceInstance = Get-SPEnterpriseSearchServiceInstance
write-host "we have a search service instance"

The two write-host commands print out fine, but when I get to the next line, New-SPEnterpriseSearchAdminComponent –SearchTopology $clone -SearchServiceInstance $searchServiceInstance, I get an error:

New-SPEnterpriseSearchAdminComponent : A positional parameter cannot be found that 
accepts argument 'â?SearchTopology TopologyId:
61b33981-a905-44f7-8000-eaa40e7b4676, CreationDate: 12/19/2014 2:18:35 PM,
State: Inactive, Components:  -SearchServiceInstance SearchServiceInstance

Before you create the service components you have to start the service instance on your server(s).

$hostA = Get-SPEnterpriseSearchServiceInstance -Identity “server-name”

Start-SPEnterpriseSearchServiceInstance -Identity $hostA

then go on with your code. example below

$ssa = Get-SPEnterpriseSearchServiceApplication
$newTopology = New-SPEnterpriseSearchTopology -SearchApplication $ssa

- Wait until the services become online (about 5 minutes)

New-SPEnterpriseSearchAdminComponent -SearchTopology $newTopology -SearchServiceInstance $hostA

Hope this helps.

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