Is it possible to create internet zone or publish central admin on Internet for SharePoint on premise enterprise environment.
I don't know any limitation, that would make it impossible to publish CA to the web. AFAIK it's handled as any other web applications.
Like Pholpar said, it seems to be handled like any other web application and the interface lets you extend no problem.
But seeing how the Central Administration is managed by the configuration wizard and powershell commandlets go out of their way to stop the central administration from being found (unless explicitly stating that you want it) I'd just configure the Firewall or Reverse Proxy to do a URL Rewrite and skip messing around with SharePoint's configuration...
Also, SSL it.