Not sure if this was the solution you had but for anyone else who comes here via a search engine for the error AppSiteDomainPrefix, this error seems to be quite misleading in that all the issue is is Visual Studio has had an issue installing/uninstalling the current app and you just need to manually uninstall the app from the site before hitting F5 in Visual Studio again.
I hit this error when I switched the URL to deploy to from Visual Studio (like Jocke) and got the standard sideloading of apps error. Silly me. So I ran the script to enable sideloading of apps, hit F5 again and got the error in this question (Error occurred in deployment step 'Uninstall app for SharePoint': Value cannot be null. Parameter name: AppSiteDomainPrefix).
It turned out although I'd had the sideloading error the app had been installed in some way, so had to be manually deleted first from site contents as per this blog post. Hitting F5 now allows the app to successfully installed to the site collection.