Create a base content type, and have all your child content types inherit from the base. Then create the routing rule on the base content type.
...of course, if you've already created the content types, and have data associated with them, you are out of luck. The wildcard syntax doesn't work the way I think you believe it does. It is meant to handle content types that are named differently in different site collections.
A possible workaround might be to create your rule on the "Document" content type, but that could allow undesired content types to match the rule.
When designing an information architecture, it is critical that you get it right the first time, because it's extremely difficult - perhaps impossible - to change once it's in place.
One thing you could do is create the parent/child content types and add them to your document libraries. You would then have to "flip" each document to its corresponding "new" content type before sending to the record center. If you have server access you should be able to script that.