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I'm new to SharePoint and when I read about search capabilities, it suggests that labels and tags are used for 2013. Is this the same as a new column as I don't see where the option is for this?

Thanks

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Its difficult to be sure because your question is a little brief but I think you are asking about how to tag list items to make them more searchable?

This is done with the Managed Metadata service. you can create termsets which are published across all your site collections and can be accessed by the columns you create in your lists and content types. managed metadata takes two forms: Termsets and enterprise keywords

A termset is a predefined list of terms and definitions which can be used by anyone in your organisation to tag documents with commonly recurring data. Enterprise Keywords are user defined in the same way that twitter and facebook hashtags are created. The user is presented with a free text field to enter any text they want when they can't find a relevent term in the managed termsets.

Here is an example I used recently to explain this to my boss:

Here is a red book with some cake crumbs on it. I want to tag the book with the #tags red, book, cake and crumbs An organisation will have many books of different colours so the managed termset will contain the term book and a subset with the terms red, blue and green in it. the chance of cake crumbs being a regular occurance is slim so they won't be in the termstore but I could use Enterprise Keywords to create my own tags 'Cake' and 'Crumbs'.

When implementing the Managed Metadata Sevice it becomes important to coordinate with all the information handling departments in your organisation so you can build a single cohesive termset that will be useful to everyone. You must also be aware that the Enterprise Keywords list will grow VERY fast and can reach tens of thousands of words so you need to nominate responsible information managers who's function it will be to caretake the termstore, auditing it regularly, linking common terms and deleting extranious ones.

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