Using non-domain account for installing and configuring SharePoint will result in ending up with only ONE web server and ONE database - that's it - NO splitting of roles in the WFE, and NO redundancy support, and you CAN'T add more servers.
But if your SharePoint servers are on Domain but SQL server is non-domain but available on the network then you can use SQL Authentication to connect the SQL server. But again their are limitation in this type, you cannot use the User Profile Sync services.
You have to manually run the Config wizard 1st via command line then from GUI. here are commands for it.
PSConfig -cmd -configdb -create -server database_servername -database SharePoint_Config -user domain/username -password password
-dbuser sharepoint_login_username -dbpassword sharepoint_login_password -admincontentdatabase SharePoint_AdminContent
The arguments for:
- server - this would be your SQL Database Server's Instance name
- database - the database name for SharePoint's configuration (we name
it SharePoint_Config here)
- user - the windows account used as the server farm's administrator
- dbuser - the SQL login account to connect to the database
- admincontentdatabase - the database name for SharePoint's Central
Administration site (SharePoint_AdminContent)