I am using the blog template in SharePoint 2010 and want to provide a Search feature that only returns items within the Posts lists in order to allow users to search through posts based on keywords.



You can define a new search scope for the site collection.. add the scope to the desired site and use it..

The important points while creating the scope to only search in a specific list is that:

Scope Rule Type: Web Address (http://server/site)
In Web Address select Folder and type the url of custom list e.g.

And when the scope is ready, the following rule:

Select Scope Rule Type is Property Query(Author=John Doe)
In Property Query section, select contentclass in Add property restrictions combo box.
In text box type STS_ListItem_GenericList

Please have a look at following posts:

Steps to search a specific custom list

Create a Search Scope for a Sharepoint 2010 List or Library


You can use REST api or CSOM to perform a list search for a client-side solution. If you know what columns to search for the keyword, take a look at: Using REST call to retrieve SharePoint list items as an array of JSON objects

For server side: See https://splistfilter.codeplex.com/ can get you started.

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