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A workaround -- configure the UP sync process to be disabled. Then write a process to check the remote source. If the source is available, enable the UP sync.
I was able to fix this by refreshing the Container in the Synchronization Connection - basically I un-ticked the grandparent container and re-ticked it (the actual "TestAccount4" above was already selected, but it seemed to just need a refresh).
Have you configured the Sync account with Replicating Directory Changes correctly in AD? Without this incremental changes will not be picked up. Check http://www.harbar.net/articles/sp2010ups.aspx for detailed setup and container permissions in AD. The article is for 2010 but works for 2013 as well.
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