I have a property named EmployeeId in AD.
UPS is configured and is getting all users EmployeeID from AD.
I have made an external list.
I want to pass logged in user's EmployeeID to that list so it only shows related records.
How to pass value?
In 2010 there was a "Personalization Site" that had some User query web parts that allowed your to do just this type of thing. The site template is now hidden in 2013 but the web parts should still exist.
Another option would be to roll your own or use REST service against the User Profile Service to pull the custom property from the UPA.