I have 2 computers, one with outlook, connected to exchange, with sharepoint lists. The other was just stand alone outlook. I added an exchange account to the second computer, and the sharepoint lists from the first were copied to it.
So i think this means that the sharepoint list settings are stored somewhere in exchange. But where they are stored, i could not find. There are a few ways to access exchange data.
I tried Exchange Web Services (2007 SP1), but could only really get the default exchange store for a user. And it had no sharepoint sync data in it i could see. The ExchangeSyncData and Subscriptions folders were empty where i expected at least some items of configuration.
If you have 2010, i would try this new method to see if it gets you the sharepoint list
settings of a folder.
Failing that, you could create the contacts in exchange with:
It must be noted that if you use sharepoint lists for contacts then i dont think they will appear in OWA or the GAB