Is it possible to assign a public list view to a specific audience, so that the view does not appear in the drop down of available views for users that are not part of the audience?
If not, how do I hide views for specific audiences or groups?
The only way to do this would be creating a separate page for each "audience" which are security trimmed. You can then place a List View Web Part on each page which contains your custom view.
Of course, the challenge then is providing appropriate navigation :)
Try creating a view. Navigate to that view, and "Edit" the page. Then edit the List View Web Part, expand advanced, and add your audience. This does not hide the view in the dropdown however.