I've installed stand-alone SP2010 on Windows Server 2008 R2 - no problems during installation.
I set up a content type that inherits the 'Page' type and added some new content type fields.
I then added a new default layout page for the content type. I used Designer to add a couple of the new content type fields to the page, checked it in and approved it.
I set up a document library and specify the new content type for it.
I try to add. The initial form appears to accept the title, description and URL, and allows me to select my new page layout.
I then click 'Create' and it crashes. The message in the log is:
No XsltListViewWebPart was found on this page[/_layouts/CreatePage.aspx?