How can I use sharepoint 2010 that is on another server in VS?
When I try to create a new project for creating visual web part, A message "Sharepoint not installed on this client" is showed.
You can develop VS projects ONLY on the same server where SharePoint is installed.
By the way, if you're using SharePoint 2013, you can develop APPS on a remote Server but that's another story.
Same question here with some suggestions for a workaround. A workaround is not recommended, though.
By the way, I had the same problem, and installed SharePoint Foundation 2010. It does not have all the options like a "regular" SharePoint, but it is free, runs fast and matches the requirements to run a decent test. The installation is described here. Just make sure you follow every step from the article. There is also a great tutorial covered with screenshots here. It`s in German, but I think you can manage to get the essence out of it.