There is a possibility that perhaps you need to start your Internet Explorer by right clicking the icon "Run as Administrator".
UAC can be a blocker as discussed here. Another possibilities within the scope of your problems can be:-
-- Add User to the Farm Administrator group.
-- Add User as the
computer administrator on every computer in the farm.
-- Check if
you are able list all services in powershell using "Get-SPServices"
by the same logged in user as the one opening the Central Admin.
Check in the services.msc if SharePoint Timer service is started or
-- Check the ULS and Application Category of Windows event logs
and see if something is out of place.