Actually Visual Studio 2010 Professional, Premium and Ultimate all allow for SharePoint development as the "Office and SharePoint development tools" are available for all (see here http://download.microsoft.com/download/4/6/E/46E8BB6C-108F-467C-9292-50EE94F117B5/download/Visual-Studio-2010-Feature-Comparison-Matrix.pdf)
Same stands still with Visual Studio 2012 (Ultimate, Premium and MSDN Professional as well as simple Professional license) - see here http://www.microsoft.com/visualstudio/eng/products/compare
Of course, the only one supporting development for both SharePoint 2010 and SharePoint 2013 is Visual Studio 2012, and more specifically, if you are looking ALSO for SharePoint Apps development (new in SharePoint 2013), you would need to install the actual Office Developer Tools for Visual Studio 2012 (http://aka.ms/OfficeDevToolsForVS2012), or alternatively use NAPA - BUT ONLY for SharePoint 2013 APPS or Office - and directly ONLY on your Office 365 Developer Account. Otherwise, on-premises development using "traditional" development procedures hasn't changed much - tools improved, of course.
So bottom line, at this stage go for Visual Studio 2012 license already, however keep in mind that in either 2010/2013 you still need server locally to develop, only for SharePoint Apps things have changed.