Targeting audience is also dependent on the User Profile service application, which again is not available in Foundations. Beyond this point, the Publishing Infrastructure is really a complex endeavour with many features, content types, web parts deployed with it.
In your situation, you might want to consider relying on either Permissions Levels assigned to various Security Groups, or Permissions Masks (e.g. in combination with SecurityTrimining sections) to replace Audiences, or user People/Groups and filter in your components based on that. Examples could be found http://raiumair.wordpress.com/2009/08/05/security-trim-control/ or explanations http://sharepointgauravgoyal.blogspot.ch/2011/04/security-trimmed-controls-in-sharepoint.html
Also the use of [Me] via SharePoint Designer filter of the DataView web part could help.