The best way to learn sharepoint is to first identify what you actually want to do in sharepoint, specifically. Administrate entire environments? Design masterpages/sites/templates? Build Solutions and use Visual Studio?) Build applications (like InfoPath, custom web parts, custom lists with custom workflows, etc?)
In SharePoint, you can try to learn the basics of being a power user first, (there's a book called SharePoint2010 for dummies, you can start there and utilize the index for whenever you run into an issue you're not familiar with. But while you read the book, apply what you see to a test environment!) Become familiar with everything there is to offer and how to use all features that come out of the box, before you start making custom stuff that you'll struggle to find a business case for.
If you want to look into design, ask to have a test site set up where you can mess around with some of your own code. You can find references and how-to's in a multitude of different sources. (Heather Solomon's blog has a very nice CSS reference chart for when you want to start branding, for example.)
Also, try asking your management team what they would recommend you to research into to get to that next level you seek.
If you want to look into administration, it's a bit harder to learn in the workplace, but you can install SharePoint Foundation at home and set up your own environment where you're the owner. There, you'll have access to the files and data stored on the server and know the locations so you can test things that you find on the internet. All of the above, including the previous answers, is what I do/am/doing/will do, and maybe you'll find information here that's helpful.