I am looking for some tutorial/solution like is described on the website below. It is a custom settings page which is available in the site settings page with a hyperlink.
Well whatever was working in 2007 is still working in 2010 (and 2013).
You need to make sure that you store the properties in the
The global steps are :
Have a look at all administration page (from the 14 hive, under layout) pick any that you would find when going into the site settings and analyze the combination of InputFormSections / Controls / InputFormButtonSection to have guidance to make it looks just like native page.
I'm using this in all my 2007 / 2010 / 2013 projects, that's way cleaner than asking IT to update the web.config or implementing a generic list to store them (but it can have unexpected side effect with content deployments but that's another story).
In short, anything you can find online for this will be relevant in 2010 and the nice walkthrough linked in your question is more than enough to put you up & running in minimal amount of time.
Here is how to create a custom sharepoint administration page: