I am from an asp.net background and I am using the Visual Studio & TFS to build the web applications. Now I want to start a new SharePoint project, so what are the required development tools if I need to write some code to extend SharePoint or develop web parts? Best Regards
What version of SharePoint do you plan to use? First of all, in general to develop for SP you need SP installed on the local computer. In addition to it, you have to install developer tools for VS.
If you plan to use SP2010, you can use this script. It will install all what you need (including SP) on your computer.
If you plan to develop for SP2013, you should install it, VS2012 and Microsoft Office Developer Tools for Visual Studio 2012