I don't believe there is an out of the box option to achieve this in SP2010. However, SP2013 may provide a means to achieve your requirement out of the box:
- Drag attachments to SharePoint Site Mailbox Document Library
- Drag attachments from SharePoint Site Mailbox to a new email message (adds links)
There are a few limitations/restrictions but it may meet your requirement: see White Paper for some more info on Site Mailboxes: http://www.scinaptic.com/sharepoint-2013-site-mailboxes.html
As you mentioned, there are number of 3rd party products of which the free OnePlaceMail Express or Enterprise edition is one (Note: I'm directly connected with this product).
The following video shows replacing attachments with links in an email...
I hope this helps.