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What are the pros and cons? Why should we use 2013 instead of 2010? Are there any significant changes that you will see, or is it just a design fresh-up and some minor change!

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It's quite a wide question to answer, but you could always start to read the article Changes from SharePoint 2010 to SharePoint 2013.

Personally I think there are extensive improvements in Enterprise Search (Content processing and Web Anlytics) as well as the built in Social capabilities of SharePoint 2013. The new social intranet and the improved search would make me decide on 2013 instead of 2010.

Here are some other examples...

Enhancements for Developers

Minimal Download Strategy (MDS)

The minimal download strategy will use a single .aspx file (start.aspx) for your pages, with the actual URL encoded in the text following the hashmark (‘#’). When moving from page to page, only the changes between two compatible pages will be downloaded. Fewer bytes will be downloaded and the pages will appear more quickly.

BCS: OData connector (Standard/Enterprise)

The OData connector is new for SharePoint. It allows for Business Connectivity Services (BCS) to use a RESTful OData endpoint as a data source for external lists, Business Data WebParts, and custom user interfaces.

BCS: Alerts for External Lists (Standard/Enterprise)

SharePoint now provides the capability of using alerts for external lists, just as they have been used for traditional lists. A user can subscribe to be alerted when data changes on an external list. Learn more about external events and alerts in SharePoint 2013.

Enhancements for Admins/IT PRos

Shredded Storage

Not available to SharePoint Online customers. Shredded storage is essentially the chunking of data—only differences are saved. That means if versioning is enabled and someone makes a change to a document, only changes “shreds” are added to the storage footprint of that document. Shredded storage improves I/O performance by reducing how much information retrieved by the web server from the content database. Shredded storage removes duplicate files, and improves data transmission speed.

Distributed Cache

Not available to SharePoint Online customers. SharePoint Server 2013 customers can use the Distributed Cache service to cache feature functionality, which improves authentication, newsfeed, OneNote client access, security trimming, and page load performance. Learn more about Distributed Cache.

SharePoint 2013 Feature Comparison Chart - All Editions: A table formatted summary of the all the features available in each edition of SharePoint 2013 (Foundation, Standard, and Enterprise)

Discontinued Features: Discontinued features and modified functionality in Microsoft SharePoint 2013

Machine Translation Services: create and configure Machine Translation services in SharePoint Server 2013

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Wow. I just visited (and got queit confused) that link before you sent it here! Thanks anyway :-) I see that search has been improved. But i dont think that my company would pay for a newer version because of social intranet and improved search! Is there a better artcle that sums up the most changes and tells why it's time to move over to 2013? –  Salar Feb 5 '13 at 10:13
    
@Salar Thanks! A quick summary can be found at SharePoint 2013 Top 10 New Features, but it's tricker to direct you to "Why it's time to move". I think you need to start with you business needs and see if SharePoint 2010/2013 meets those. –  Benny Skogberg Feb 5 '13 at 11:27
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Good link. it seems that i'm getting closer to make disunion. –  Salar Feb 5 '13 at 15:58
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I was searching for answers to this question myself, added a bunch of links to the top answer. Hope they helps people! –  Robert Kaucher Apr 15 '13 at 20:31
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One huge thing, IMHO, is the licensing change. External users no longer cost you CALS, and they removed the extra fee for running a public internet site in SharePoint 2013. Saves TONS of money vs the old setup.

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As Benny Skogberg said Search and Social got big improvments - I totally sign that.

Additionally I would mention the possibilities you have with the new design concept (device channels, mobile support, design manager, display templates and all the new stuff).

Another big thing is that the internet license is gone - its much cheaper now for small companies to use *one platform for intranet and interne*t.

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What about document preview? Memberlist, sorting it and connection between Lync, Onenote, Excel, Word! –  Salar Feb 5 '13 at 10:18
    
For this you need Office Web Apps 2013 - this is another huge improvement for SharePoint 2013 (not only) and not compatible with Sharepoint 2010. If you want to have Previews e.g. in Search this could be done with FAST Search Server for SharePoint 2010 and Office WebApps 2010 - both separate license and it could be very expensive. With SP2013 you get it cheaper and some parts are already included. Memberlist => basic in SharePoint 2010, advanced e.g. Communities in SP2013 Sorting is basic. Lync/Onenote/Excel/Word support is in both versions. –  Max Melcher Feb 5 '13 at 13:22
    
We have Office 2010 at the moment, but soon we will have the new office 365. I'm not queit sure what we will get with that and if WebApps is a separate license. You know if there is a connection between SP2013 and Office 365? –  Salar Feb 5 '13 at 16:06
    
Office and Office 365 are two totally different things - but yes, there could be a connection between Office 365 and SharePoint 2013 and its called a hybrid environment: blogs.technet.com/b/speschka/archive/2012/11/13/… –  Max Melcher Feb 6 '13 at 13:25
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If you have the choice, on a functional focus I would definitly emphasize on SharePoint 2013. For example : SPF 2013 now has some "server" functionalities for search.

On a technological focus, SharePoint 2013 is much more hungry.

But if SP2010 native functionalities are enough four your business needs, it may be a good choice.

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I see that we are not happy with some of 2010's missing functionality. and the design is sometimes pain in the some area! Question is how hungry is 2013? –  Salar Feb 5 '13 at 10:20
    
For that specific question, you should read on technet this : link and also this post : link –  airdalle Feb 5 '13 at 14:30
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