I configured the column default values for one folder and all its subfolder in a Document library. I would like to repeat the same setting for a new folder in the same library. I tried to copy/paste the folder in the Windows Explorer view, but the resulting folder does not hold any default value information.
To copy folders, have you tried using the sitemanager.aspx page?
In SP2010 you can reach it with "Content and structure" link under "Site Actions". In SP2013 there is no link but the page is still available if you type the correct URL (/_Layouts/15/sitemanager.aspx)
Not sure about folders but (in SP2010 and SP2013) you can use documentsets to do this.
A documentset is a special kind of folder that has highly configurable settings. You can define your own content type based upon a documentset ex: 'MyDocumentSet'.
Every new 'folder' based upon 'MyDocumentset' will utilize these documentset settings. Documentset can be very powerfull and have a bunch of other settings that you can use / configure