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Is it possible to overwrite 1 dll in the GAC of a live server of my customer? Otherwise I need to install the whole feature. In this feature are very much webparts and other stuff.

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If you have a farm with multiple servers, you'll need to update your dll's in all of the servers. but if you have only one server, you can drag your dll to the gac folder or use the GacUtil.

In any case I would suggest you to deploy your dll using a WSP solution which will copy your dll to all of the servers on your farm.

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Moreover, if you don't deploy with the wsp file, you have a difference between the dll in the GAC and the dll in the WSP package. If tomorrow, for whatever reason you have to redeploy the package, you will "loose" your updated DLL. The other issue with manual deploy, is that SharePoint is keeping some DLL in a cache. If you don't recycle the application pool, you may have the older DLL's version that runs. When you deploy a WSP package with a DLL, SharePoint automatically recycle the services – Steve B Jan 10 '13 at 15:33

you could try gacutil

and the command: gacutil /i yourdll.dll

you will find it in the visual studio command prompt.

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If the live server of his customer has Visual Studio installed, I would start to be afraid... – Steve B Jan 10 '13 at 15:36

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