The actual details of your error will be in SharePoint's ULS log files. The key here is the correlation ID that has been listed out. You have to parse through the appropriate log file and filter down to log events that use that correlation ID. Then, within that group of items, there should be more detailed error messages about what happened.
Where to find ULS log files
They're in SharePoint's hive. Since you're using 2013, they will be in the 15 hive, which is located at:
C:\Program Files\Common Files\Microsoft Shared\Web Server Extensions\15\Logs
SharePoint 2010 used the 14 hive, while SharePoint 2007 used the 12 hive.
Since the log files rollover, you'll need to find the log file that corresponds to the date and time you've noted in your error message. Just check the last modified date of the files and select the first one with a date/time just higher than your error.
Then search for that correlation ID. You'll get a hit for multiple lines. One or more of those lines will contain error data.
A quicker way - ULSViewer.exe
It's good to know how and where to get to this data, but it's also nice to have some tools to help you out. ULSViewer is an unsupported Microsoft utility that parses these log files and makes it a lot easier to filter and sort based on criteria: severity, date/time, correlation ID, etc.
Download it from: http://archive.msdn.microsoft.com/ULSViewer
Check out the documentation file (it's in .docx format) to get a quick rundown of how to use it. Basically, you open the file (File > Open From > File), select the appropriate ULS log file as noted above, then modify the filter to use "CorrelationID" "equals" and paste in the GUID as the filter value. Then see what you get -- you should definitely get some results. If not, you've either opened the wrong log file, or in cases where you have load balanced servers in a farm scenario, another front-end server might have the data you need.