As you wrote, the error occurs in the adding your solution. Are you trying to install a new timer job from your job definition in the feature event receiver?
If so, you could try the powershell way Remove the timer job installation code from your solution, but leave the job definition code.
Then in Powershell try to run this powershell code line for line and see what errors occur there:
$app = get-spwebapplication http://intranet
$name = "you-name-it-timer"
$job = new-object your.solution.namespace.MyTimerDefinition($name, $app)
$job.Schedule = [Microsoft.SharePoint.SPSchedule]::FromString("Every 15 minutes between 0 and 59")
#must restart timer service