Is it possible for me to pull the values that are in:
Central Admin -> System Settings -> Configure outgoing e-mail settings
from my code behind using the object model?
Make sure that you have already configured the “Outgoing e-mail settings”.
Yes, look for properties of SPAdministrationWebApplication, you can access it using SPAdministrationWebApplication.Local. Properties are:
Assembly: Microsoft.SharePoint (in Microsoft.SharePoint.dll)
If you want to update the settings, you need to call UpdateMailSettings method.