I am looking for the location where SharePoint 2010 stores Diagnostic Logging Categories located on the Central Administration Diagnostic Logging page.
It is not simply a file or list somewhere. The Diagnostic areas and sub-categories are provided by custom diagnostic services derived from the SPDiagnosticsServiceBase.
Todd Carter has a good blog and sample code:
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Looking at steps required to create Custom Logging Service and registering with SharePoint, it can be fairly said that that information is coming from SharePoint farm's configuration database. But the point is, you can have more categories added there and below are the links to get started: