The easiest way is to build the View you want into your list definition. Then in your ListViewWebPart refer it to that view.
In CAML, this will be something like:
<View List="Lists/Tasks" BaseViewID="7" WebPartZoneID="Left" WebPartOrder="5" />
BaseViewID is the identifier for the View in your List Definition.
However, you might want to do this programmatically - for example, if you create the view within your list programmatically too. In that case, you'll need something like:
SPView myView = ...
using (SPLimitedWebPartManager manager = web.GetLimitedWebPartManager("default.aspx", PersonalizationScope.Shared))
using (ListViewWebPart webPart = new ListViewWebPart())
webPart.Title = "My List";
webPart.ListName = web.Lists["MyList"].ID.ToString("B").ToUpper();
webPart.ViewGuid = myView.ID.ToString("B").ToUpper();
manager.AddWebPart(webPart, "Left", 3);