Although it's not quite what you're looking for, I created the 'SharePoint Language Store' (perhaps not the best name!) on Codeplex as a result of a project I worked on which had 100 SharePoint sites in around 30 languages. We also liked the idea of using a SharePoint list for such values, as the client could add translations over time and it sat well with other aspects of SharePoint. Similar to .Net, a 'fallback' process is used to determine which language to retrieve from the list e.g. if 'FR-CH' is requested but we have no value, check 'FR', before finally falling back to the default language. Caching is implemented for performance, and there's a .Net expression builder for retrieving values in markup i.e:
<asp:Button runat="server" id="btnSearch" Text="<%$ SPLang:Search|SearchGoButtonText %>" />
Fellow MVP Waldek Mastykarz built some T4 templates around my solution to provide strongly-typed access e.g:
string body = LanguageStoreValues.InitiationWorkflow.Message_EmailBody_AddContentAndOwnersTask;
Not sure if he ever published them publically, but from past conversations I know he's happy to share.
So that all might get you kinda close to what you're looking for?
Some more info in my Building multi-lingual SharePoint sites - introducing the Language Store post, and the Codeplex project is at http://splanguagestore.codeplex.com/
P.S. The Language Store is a sister project to the more popular Config Store for configuration values.